The Eiffel Tower is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.Work on the foundations started on 28 January 1887.
Eiffel Tower Architecture
Work on Eiffel Tower the started on 28 January 1887.Those for the east and south legs were straightforward, with each leg resting on four 2 m (6.6 ft) concrete slabs, one for each of the principal girders of each leg.
The west and north legs, being closer to the river Seine, were more complicated: each slab needed two piles installed by using compressed-air caissons 15 m (49 ft) long and 6 m (20 ft) in diameter driven to a depth of 22 m (72 ft)to support the concrete slabs, which were 6 m (20 ft) thick.
Each of these slabs supported a block of limestone with an inclined top to bear a supporting shoe for the ironwork.
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The task of drawing the parts was complicated by the difficult angles involved in the design and the degree of precision required: the position of rivet holes was specified to within 0.1 mm (0.0039 in) and angles worked out to one second of arc.
The finished components, some already riveted together into sub-assemblies, arrived on horse-drawn carts from a factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret and were first bolted together, with the bolts being replaced with rivets as construction progressed.
No drilling or shaping was done on site: if any part did not fit, it was sent back to the factory for alteration. In all, 18,038 pieces were joined together using 2.5 million rivets.
The critical stage of joining the legs at the first level was completed by the end of March 1888.
Although the metalwork had been prepared with the utmost attention to detail, provision had been made to carry out small adjustments in order to precisely align the legs; hydraulic jacks were fitted to the shoes at the base of each leg, capable of exerting a force of 800 tonnes, and the legs were intentionally constructed at a slightly steeper angle than necessary, being supported by sandboxes on the scaffold.
Although construction involved 300 on-site employees, only one person died thanks to Eiffel’s stringent safety precautions and the use of movable gangways, guardrails and screens.
Construction of the Eiffel Tower cost 7,799,401.31 French gold francs in 1889, or about $1.5 million.
The Eiffel Tower is 1,063 feet (324 meters) tall, including the antenna at the top. Without the antenna, it is 984 feet (300 m).
It was the world’s tallest structure until the Chrysler Building was built in New York in 1930.
The tower has a sun-facing side that heats up, the top moves as much as 7 inches (18 centimeters) away from the sun.
The Eiffel Tower weighs 10,000 tons.
Almost 5 billion lights on the Eiffel Tower.
The Eiffel Tower has 108 stories, with 1,710 steps and There are two elevators.